The Basic housing and structures in the Community Developments will be comprised of many different innovative and proven construction technologies in all manner of shapes and sizes. Different styles of Architecture will also be utilized, not only to create an aesthetically pleasing environment, but also for the purpose of disaster mitigation, and in some cases, even for disaster relief.
The variations will depend in part on what resources are naturally and locally available. Additional considerations will be given to the different types of (natural) disasters and events that occur within any given environment for the community developments. Is it hot and dry or hot and humid? Does it get cold? Are typhoons an issue of concern?
Are earthquakes and/or mudslides something that has to be worried about? If there are earthquakes, is there a potential for tsunamis? Are high winds prevalent? The housing and structures and even much of the surrounding infrastructure and the local environmental efforts will all be based on the individual needs of the communities wherein they are built. Thus again, the adaptive nature of the whole system sustainable development becomes a mandatory and integral factor.
Some of the more innovative construction technologiesi are multi-purpose construction technologies designed primarily for disaster mitigation in whatever form they are used. One such technology is created using much the same as the construction for the Panama and Suez Canals and also in the ancient Greek and Egyptian architectural methods and construction techniques. As such, this is an ideal solution for the prevention of tsunamis and mud floes from the mudslides prevalent in some areas. In the cases of tsunamis, underwater barriers can be placed in a channel and duly marked at the outer edges of beaches and other locations where the tsunamis are a potential threat.
The design and construction are such that as the waters (or mud and debris) rush in, they will be divided and turned back on themselves to greatly reduce the velocity and destructive force of the waves rushing in. The water being divided at the base will be greatly reduced in speed and force, while the waters being turned back on themselves will be forced up and back into the incoming water at higher levels, thus further reducing the potential for catastrophic damage and destruction from the direct impact of the tsunami or mudslide. The same principles hold true in defeating mudslides though the process itself is more involved and complicated.
In terms of mudslides, (and to some degree, the same for typhoons) an architectural style developed in Japan is utilized in conjunction with specialized and innovative construction technologies. With this style of architecture and construction, wind, water and mud are all divided and turned back on to themselves no matter how, or from what angle they may strike the building or structure. In “normal” construction, the planar surface of the wall is abjectly flat and prone to giving way in the event of a direct impact. Utilizing the Japanese architectural methods, the flat surface is broken up with angles at the columns, subsequently assisting in the deflection of a direct impact, whether it be by mud, water or air. This in turn, prevents the continual buildup of forces that would otherwise occur in the event of a direct, “head-on” impact that may cause damage or even collapse the structure that has been hit. Furthermore, in terms of damage, especially among solid and what are deemed to be “safe” structures, the threats are not so much from the initial force as they are from the debris caught up in the disaster. Thus, the compressive strength of construction materials is heavily factored into any equation for the selection of construction materials on site.
Typhoons and tornadoes have been shown to be capable of driving a piece of straw or hay into a hardwood tree or through sheets of metal. While the wind from the hurricane may not in and of itself be so bad in regards of the damage it causes against a “safe” structure, the debris tossed up by those winds can cause even more damage in terms of property and life than the actual storm did to begin with. As such, it is necessary to address the debris fields associated with such disasters (both natural and man-made) as it is with the direct impact from the storms. While the restrictions in areas prone to earthquakes may be different, many of the same issues of concern need to be addressed in line with the other requirements to make a home or structure truly safe and secure.
Earthquakes require even further reinforcement for all of the buildings and or structures being constructed in areas that are prone to such occurrences. While many of the actual techniques are patented, some of the details can be revealed here. In the case of homes and other commercial structures, steps are taken to prevent the earthquake from shaking or vibrating the building apart.
One of the primary means for accomplishing this, is a planar surface or wall that allows for a limited degree of flex, while at the same time retaining its strength as a planar surface. There are also very unique and innovative techniques utilized both within the foundation and/or under the foundation of the home to allow for the entire house to move back and forth as a whole, singular structure in addition to the ability of the planar surfaces to flex. As such, in all but the most catastrophic of earthquakes, the entire structure remains intact and safe for its occupants.
Additional, “decorative” structures are also built within the Community Developments and in the Isolated Community Service Centers to add further defense and allow for a more efficient and effective means of disaster mitigation. These structures will be strategically located between the source (mountainside, ocean, etc) of the disaster potential and the structures and buildings being protected. Additional decorative structures will be placed directly against any of the buildings that require additional protection. These generally include schools, government buildings and even shelters and other “safe” locations to provide direct access for the local people to seek shelter in the event of an emergency. All of that however, despite how effective it may be, does not complete the ongoing efforts of disaster mitigation in both the Community Developments and the Isolated Community Service Centers.
In addition to all of the innovative and even revolutionary technologies, steps are also taken from an environmental standpoint to aid and revitalize the local environments and ecosystems so as to prevent those natural disasters which are, in large part at least, readily prevented.
Due to the great many illegal loggers and the improper water and drainage systems around most agricultural lands, erosion is a very common problem. Erosion is also the underlying cause for much of the flooding, the landslides and the mudslides that continue to plague local populations across much of the globe. Reforestation, (ideally with food forests) the introduction of proper water and drainage systems and even the reclamation and restoration of local environments and ecosystems help to prevent many of these natural disasters, thus making the mitigation almost redundant, though substantially more effective in the prevention of loss in both life and property.
i Most of the truly innovative construction technologies remain under patent and will until such a time as the patents can be purchased and released under a GNU or other similar licensing agreement. While the patent owners are respected and deserve to be rewarded for their work, the sharing of knowledge and information is an absolute necessity in order to benefit all humanity.
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